Results and Statistics of the Media Campaign on Digital Skills

While not aiming to constitute a scientifically representative study, data collected through REIsearch’s 2018 gamified survey in a Gdpr compliant modality, is in line with previous observations on European’s digital skills and has shed a few indications on the general level of awareness of the European public on topics such as AI, social media and digital skills.

However, the most important observation is the need for accessible tools for self-evaluation of one’s digital skills not only in the professional domain but expecially on the general knowledge of the digital world. This requires a non specialistic language, and a playful voice for questions to make participation fun. Recommendations for more support to member states in developing infrastructure and connectivity as well as expanding advanced and lifelong training companies and Universities already abundant.

However, as recently noted by UNESCO, the the most critical area seem entry-level digital skills, meaning basic functional skills required to make basic use of digital devices and online applications, are widely considered a critical component of a new set of literacy skills in the digital era, with traditional reading, writing, and numeracy skills.

At the advanced spectrum of digital skills are the higher-level abilities that allow users to make use of digital technologies in empowering and transformative ways such as professions in ICT. Major digital transformations such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), machine learning, big data analytics, change skills requirements and, in turn, impact capacity building and skills development for the 21st century digital economy.

To thrive in the connected economy and society, digital skills must also function together with other abilities such as strong literacy and numeracy skills, critical and innovative thinking, complex problem solving, an ability to collaborate, and socio-emotional skills.

The topics of future media and citizen engagement campaigns should therefore be designed to maximise dissemina- tion of the resources made available on the REIsearch platform (e.g. for 2018 these cover four areas of coumputer science: Big data and analytics; internet of things; social media; cybersecurity) and to other contents made available on the new REIsearch platform.

The more user friendly, entertaining as well as informative, engagement campaign of 2018 has been met with strong approval by our media partners (El País, Der Standard, Frankfurt Allgemeine Zeitung, Il Sole24Ore, Les Echos and Pùblico), as it is better aligned with their content and readership and technically simpler to integrate in their websites.

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All data gathered by the the 2018 and following campaigns are available below in an open data format to maximise its reuse and visibility.

10528 Completed Games
Global scores
Category Scores
Answers by gender
All questions and Answers
Question Available answers and point
What type of test measures whether some observed value is similar to the population statistic, or if the difference between the observed value and the population statistic is large enough that it isn't likely to be by coincidence. Significance test (374 points)
P-value (312 points)
Critical value (156 points)
Z score (145 points)
Moore’s Law relates to how many transistors can be put on a computer chip True (547 points)
False (389 points)
Order these amounts of information from smallest to largest kilobyte,megabyte,gigabyte,terabyte,petabyte,exabyte,zetabyte,yottabyte (753 points)
A voluminous amount of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for information. Small Data (31 points)
Meta Data (192 points)
Statistical Data (112 points)
Big Data (961 points)
Leading analyst firm Gartner defines Big Data from three aspects, all starting with the letter V. Which of these are not a part of their consideration of big data? Value (351 points)
Volume (227 points)
Velocity (672 points)
How many hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute? 35 (40 points)
60 (258 points)
100 (767 points)
How many Exabytes of data is the Large Hadron Collider capable of producing in just one day 10 Exabytes (188 points)
100 Exabytes (487 points)
500 Exabytes (428 points)
What decade did formal "artificial intelligence" research begin? 1950s (329 points)
1970s (271 points)
1960s (313 points)
How much did Google pay for artificial intelligence firm DeepMind? $275 million (123 points)
$750 million (445 points)
$400 million (376 points)
In 2016, who won the game of Go between world champion Lee Sedol and DeepMind's AlphaGo computer? Lee Sedol (168 points)
AlphaGo (746 points)
According to a study conducted by IBM, what is the largest single source where data is gathered? Email (101 points)
Social Media (520 points)
Business Transactions (84 points)
Log Data (259 points)
SAAS stands for? System Aerosurface Actuator Simulation (223 points)
Systems as a Service (183 points)
Software acting as Service (250 points)
Software as a Service (680 points)
Which of the following is/are correct types of data? Semi-structured Data (937 points)
Unstructured Data (869 points)
Semi Data (251 points)
The branch of data mining concerned with the prediction of future probabilities and trends. In-memory Analytics (20 points)
Predictive Analytics (577 points)
Behavioral Analytics (123 points)
Big Data Analytics (334 points)
Does Big Data analytics pose a threat to privacy? Yes (381 points)
No (42 points)
Only if the access to data is not controlled and accepted by users (401 points)
Big Data analytics has nothing to do with privacy (137 points)
Which of the following industries use Big Data analytics extensively? Check all that apply. Finance and banking (768 points)
Retail and healthcare (604 points)
E-commerce and social media (890 points)
By "Concept Drift" Data Scientists refer to what? A change in the respose the model used by analytics should provide (506 points)
A change in the model adopted by analytics (490 points)
A change in the users interacting with analytics (336 points)
Data Streams require models supporting? Discontinuity (247 points)
Incremental updates (470 points)
Data consistency (839 points)
The acronym of the CAP theorem stands for Composition Availability Price (166 points)
Consistency Availability Partition tollerance (287 points)
Consistency Availability Performance (936 points)
By lambda architecture Data Engineers refer to A data-processing architecture designed to handle massive quantities of data by taking advantage of elastic engines (292 points)
A data-processing architecture designed to handle massive quantities of data by taking advantage of Spark and Hadoop (205 points)
A data-processing architecture designed to handle massive quantities of data by taking advantage of both batch- and stream-processing methods (791 points)
According to Asimov’s three laws, under what circumstances is it all right for a robot to injure a human being? Never. (802 points)
When the human being specifically requests it. (107 points)
In case of an accident. (51 points)
In case the robot controller is infected with a computer virus. (50 points)
A robot car or truck can best keep itself traveling down a specific lane of traffic by means of: Stereoscopic machine hearing. (64 points)
Epipolar navigation. (164 points)
Edge detection. (396 points)
Proximity sensing. (371 points)
The total number of ways in which a robot arm can move is known as Functional orientation. (152 points)
Degrees of freedom. (529 points)
Dimensional versatility. (329 points)
Coordinate geometry. (95 points)
Where did Hadoop get its name? It’s an acronym (493 points)
Toy elephant (293 points)
An imaginary friend (172 points)
A fictional character from literature (294 points)
What is Artificial Intelligence? Logical Reasoning (60 points)
Knowledge Representation (31 points)
Natural Language Processing (18 points)
All of the above and much more (823 points)
The Internet of Things is improving every day, but what percentage of devices were found to contain a security vulnerability? 15% (36 points)
30% (139 points)
50% (113 points)
70% (434 points)
E90% (368 points)
What does the “https://” at the beginning of a URL denote, as opposed to "http://" (without the “s”)? That the site has special high definition (16 points)
That information entered into the site is encrypted (711 points)
That the site is the newest version available (24 points)
That the site is not accessible to certain computers (46 points)
None of the above (295 points)
Not sure (113 points)
Which of the following is an example of a “phishing” attack? Sending someone an email that contains a malicious link that is disguised to look like an email from someone the person knows (100 points)
Creating a fake website that looks nearly identical to a real website in order to trick users into entering their login information (259 points)
Sending someone a text message that contains a malicious link that is disguised to look like a notification that the person has won a contest (41 points)
All of the above (601 points)
Not sure (24 points)
A group of computers that is networked together and used by hackers to steal information is called a … Botnet (730 points)
Rootkit (149 points)
DDoS (135 points)
Operating system (35 points)
Not sure (69 points)
Some websites and online services use a security process called two-step authentication. Which of the following images is an example of two-step authentication? IMAGES to select: (22 points)
(223 points)

(99 points)

(89 points)

(53 points)

(33 points)

None of these (232 points)
Not sure (99 points)
Which of the following four passwords is the most secure? Boat123 (15 points)
WTh!5Z (831 points)
into*48 (29 points)
123456 (8 points)
Not sure (31 points)
Criminals access someone’s computer and encrypt the user’s personal files and data. The user is unable to access this data unless they pay the criminals to decrypt the files. This practice is called … Botnet (30 points)
Ransomware (650 points)
Driving (21 points)
Spam (20 points)
None of the above (156 points)
Not sure (32 points)
“Private browsing” is a feature in many internet browsers that lets users access web pages without any information (like browsing history) being stored by the browser. Can internet service providers see the online activities of their subscribers when those subscribers are using private browsing? Yes (725 points)
No (101 points)
Not sure (78 points)
Turning off the GPS function of your smartphone prevents any tracking of your phone’s location. True (92 points)
False (752 points)
Not sure (93 points)
If a public Wi-Fi network (such as in an airport or café) requires a password to access, is it generally safe to use that network for sensitive activities such as online banking? Yes, it is safe (93 points)
No, it is not safe (1300 points)
Not sure (121 points)
What kind of cybersecurity risks can be minimized by using a Virtual Private Network (VPN)? Use of insecure Wi-Fi networks (424 points)
Key-logging (101 points)
De-anonymization by network operators (367 points)
Phishing attacks (98 points)
Not sure (53 points)
What is a computer network? super computer owned only by the government (2 points)
web of connected computers or devices (808 points)
A computer vulnerability (13 points)
An Internet service provider (42 points)
All of the above (46 points)
Why are cyber vulnerabilities unlikely to ever go away? They’re protected in a secret base on the moon. (11 points)
Criminals need them to steal identities. (78 points)
They are side effects of the freedom and ease of communicating online. (883 points)
The government won’t allow people to fix them. (40 points)
The size and complexity of networks grew enormously when: Only governments and universities owned computers (10 points)
Spamware caused some computers to break down (52 points)
The number of personal computers greatly increased (748 points)
The hacktivists started using the internet (44 points)
Which of these groups exploits cyber vulnerabilities? Criminals (638 points)
Governments (470 points)
Hacktivists (807 points)
Which of the following may try to intercept and use your messages for their own purposes? News outlets (289 points)
Governments (560 points)
Advertising agencies (754 points)
Crime rings (671 points)
Why do hackers hack? To make discoveries (52 points)
To protect information (21 points)
To steal information (347 points)
To expose corruption (35 points)
All of the above (1105 points)
When a company posts a privacy policy, it ensures that the company keeps confidential all the information it collects on users True (529 points)
False (902 points)
In 2013, researchers showed that, in theory, a small amount of data on a person’s movements is enough to uniquely identify them in an anonymized mobile phone metadata set. How many locations and times are needed to identify someone? Two (350 points)
Four (651 points)
Seven (398 points)
Ten (57 points)
Many implanted medical devices, like pacemakers, are now wirelessly accessible, making them a new focus of privacy concerns. Which prominent figure dramatized the risk that an implanted device could be hacked? Former Vice President Dick Cheney (400 points)
Homeland’s fictional Vice President William Walden (595 points)
North Korean leader Kim Jong-un (97 points)
German Chancellor Angela Merkel (162 points)
How much information is required to mathematically capture the unique features of your face? 256 gigabytes (an entire computer hard drive) (185 points)
256 megabytes (a big movie file) (311 points)
256 kilobytes (a small image file) (583 points)
256 bits (a single sentence) (392 points)
Sites visible in the EU are required by law to display a privacy policy on their website. True (841 points)
False (68 points)
If a company has a privacy policy on its website it should no share my personal information infringing it. True (631 points)
False (439 points)
If I give a company my email address and they contact me via email, the email must contain: A subject line that accurately reflects the content of the message. (593 points)
A valid physical postal address for the company (463 points)
A clear and conspicuous way to opt out of future emails. (995 points)
How many wireless connected devices will there be by 2020? Less than 10 million (19 points)
11-20 billion (144 points)
21-30 billion (257 points)
31-40 billion (217 points)
40+ billion (443 points)
How much will the Internet of Things be worth by 2020? $1-2 trillion (47 points)
$2-4 trillion (96 points)
$4-6 trillion (189 points)
$6-8 trillion (283 points)
$8-10 trilion (274 points)
The Internet of Things will run on many communication standards. Which of these is not a standard body or protocol? Zigbee (150 points)
AllSeen (149 points)
Open Interconnect Consortium (218 points)
Tyrell (318 points)
Thread (417 points)
How many connected cars will be on our roads by 2020? < 50 million (297 points)
51-100 million (275 points)
101-150 million (146 points)
>150 million (208 points)
What does reasearch suggest that people value most when buying a new car? Power and handling (163 points)
Colour (115 points)
Engine size (43 points)
Free added extras (185 points)
In-car technology (368 points)
What do start-ups think is the most important aspect of a successful wearable product? price (56 points)
Connectivity (397 points)
Features (195 points)
Design (215 points)
Third-party apps (150 points)
Machine-to-Machine devices will connect many industrial processes to networks for the first time thanks to Embedded SIMs. How many will be in use by 2020? < 10 million (93 points)
10-15 billion (251 points)
15-20 billion (243 points)
20+ billion (302 points)
People love paying with contactless cards, and are increasingly able to use their mobiles to pay too. 0.5% of people around the world paid with their smartphone at least once a month last year. In 2015 this will increase: 2x (83 points)
4x (226 points)
6x (194 points)
8x (161 points)
10x (378 points)
How many usernames and passwords does the average person have? 10 (409 points)
15 (305 points)
20 (185 points)
25 (120 points)
30 (61 points)
The Apple iPhone was first released in what year? 2005 (328 points)
2007 (626 points)
2009 (146 points)
2011 (26 points)
"Net Neutrality” refers to The posting of a website that are non partisan (62 points)
The way Wikipedia editors handle new entries (35 points)
Equal treatment of digital content by Internet providers (1120 points)
What year does futurist Ray Kurzweil believe AI will meet adult human intelligence? 2029 (695 points)
2024 (333 points)
2082 (249 points)
What is the difference between Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality In AR the user interects with the real world enriched with virtual features while in MR the user interacts with virtual elements. (1076 points)
MR is only a feature of video games (179 points)
In AR "Occlusion" is important because: It adds perspective to the environment (251 points)
It allows viewing virtual elements in space (322 points)
It alloes to hide virtual elements behind real ones (616 points)
What is IoT built on? Cloud computing (82 points)
A network of data- gathering sensors (394 points)
Both (723 points)
Who said this? "The internet will disappear. There will be so many IP addresses, so many devices, sensors… that it will be part of your presence all the time. Imagine you walk into a room and you are interacting with the things going on in there." Mark Zuckerberg (126 points)
Bill Gates (193 points)
Steve Jobs (258 points)
Eric Schmidt (342 points)
Which challenge comes under securing the information in IoT networks? Signaling (109 points)
Security (444 points)
Presence detection (188 points)
Power consumption (104 points)
The huge numbers of devices connected to the Internet of things have to communicate automatically, not via humans. What is this called? Machine to Machine (M2M) (592 points)
Bot to Bot (B2B) (229 points)
Skynet (56 points)
Intercloud (123 points)
TRUE or FALSE: Seals have been connected to the Internet of Things? True (557 points)
False (301 points)
Groningen, Netherlands has Internet-enabled dustbins. What benefit does this provide? The bins can report vandals (131 points)
The bins can ask to be emptied (705 points)
The bins sort recyclable materials (207 points)
Some companies refer to the IoT as the IoE. What does it mean? Internet of Ethernet (127 points)
Internet of Everything (998 points)
Internet of Enterprise (159 points)
Internet of Elegance (15 points)
Why did the City of London ask a recycling firm to stop a test project using connected recycling bins? There were fears of radio-wave exposure (127 points)
The bins were tracking people's smartphones (580 points)
The bins used too much electricity (181 points)
Security expert Eugene Kaspersky calls the IoT what? The Internet of Totality (177 points)
The Internet of Threats (796 points)
The Internet of Teams (32 points)
The Internet of Time (60 points)
What is the size of the IPv6 addressed? 32 bits (103 points)
64 bits (400 points)
128 bits (475 points)
256 bits (339 points)
Who invented the term Internet of Things? Tim Berners Lee (379 points)
Steve Jobs (309 points)
Kevin Ashton (431 points)
Glenn Mecaughty (220 points)
One of these is a new social network used by hundreds of millions of teenagers and valued at $1bn. The other four do not exist. Which one is real? (431 points)
BantsBible. (28 points)
VidVote. (77 points)
BullyME. (68 points)
#SingSong. (51 points)
A giraffe in a New York zoo became a YouTube sensation when the birth of her fourth calf was watched by 30 million people. Why did YouTube cut the livestream midway through? Soothing birthing music was playing in the background and the zoo didn’t have the rights. (185 points)
The zoo hadn’t paid for a premium YouTube account. (60 points)
The calf appeared to breech and they were worried about upsetting young viewers. (149 points)
There were concerns the stream violated YouTube’s nudity and sexual content policy. (209 points)
Why was Donald Trump’s Twitter account briefly shut down? It was suspended because it was in violation of Twitter's policy on hate speech. (230 points)
It was suspended by a disgruntled, Trump-hating employee on their last day. (244 points)
Trump himself accidentally suspended the account while trying to add #MAGA to his Twitter name. (87 points)
It was suspended because Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey said he couldn’t live with his conscience if he continued to enable such globally destabilising horror. (55 points)
Jenna Abrams was a Trump-loving “alt-right” internet star who had 70,000 Twitter followers. But what was recently discovered about her? She voted for Hillary Clinton. (141 points)
She was being paid by Steve Bannon for specific pro-Trump tweets. (254 points)
She is suing Trump in court for breach of contract in a real estate deal. (134 points)
She was created by a Russia-based troll farm and doesn’t really exist. (683 points)
In 2017 Twitter increased its limit to 280 characters. Taking advantage of the extra space, very tedious people used Wingdings to play all but one of the following games: Pong. (273 points)
Connect Four. (321 points)
Chess. (304 points)
Tetris. (328 points)
In 2017 this image - - was banned by Facebook because: It showed an image of war (118 points)
It was judged unamerican (31 points)
It infringed copyright (110 points)
It ws in black and white (18 points)
It violated the network's nudity policy (987 points)
Which of the following is not a social media application? Flickr (90 points)
My Space (73 points)
Linked In (46 points)
All of these (137 points)
None of These (298 points)
You don't have to be an official representative of an organization to create a Facebook page for that organization. True (826 points)
False (321 points)
You can modify your YouTube account so comments must be approved before they are visible. True (989 points)
False (358 points)
What social networking site has a feature called "Answers" that allows users to ask other members for professional advice? Wikipedia (87 points)
Cha Cha (128 points)
Yahoo (554 points)
Linked In (591 points)
What is the most popular day for tweets? Friday (372 points)
Saturday (120 points)
Sunday (139 points)
Monday (324 points)
Tuesday (108 points)
Translate this emoji sentence: My television is broken. I've been kicking it around like a soccer ball. I should call a repair man later. (49 points)
I'm watching the World Cup. Call me later. (889 points)
I don't usually watch television until after I browse the Internet, exercise and make my evening phone calls. (108 points)
Can you watch the World Cup and talk later? (93 points)
Translate this emoji sentence: I'm sad because I lost all my money betting on a horse race. (401 points)
I'm sad because I don't have enough money to buy a horse. (52 points)
I refuse to spend money at the horse track. (75 points)
I bet you that horse is not going to win the race. (84 points)
Who is this internet leader? Melissa Meyer (242 points)
Sheryl Sandberg (322 points)
Meg Whitman (157 points)
Arianna Huffington (258 points)
In what year did Facebook launch? 2007 (106 points)
2004 (297 points)
2006 (137 points)
2002 (146 points)
In what year did Twitter launch? 2002 (139 points)
2004 (255 points)
2006 (383 points)
2008 (311 points)
What featured in the most retweeted Twitter image of all time? Grumpy Cat (283 points)
Barak Obama celebrating re-election (70 points)
Ellen's Oscar selfie (266 points)
Someone's lunch (57 points)
Can you permanently erase a social media post from Facebook? True (167 points)
False (452 points)
In news media, the term echo chamber indicates: a situation in which beliefs are amplified or reinforced by communication and repetition inside a closed system as in some social networks (950 points)
a music listening space online (19 points)
an "acoustic mirror" you able to play the sounds it is exposed to (105 points)
In internet slang a "troll" is: a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore (10 points)
a demon and malignant creature (24 points)
a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting quarrels or upsetting people (1091 points)
Let's see how good you are at spotting fake news: is this pic of Julian Assange and Pamela Anderson real or fake?*&output-format=auto&output-quality=auto Real (223 points)
Fake (1038 points)
Let's see how good you are at spotting fake news. TRUE OR FALSE: 2014 was one of the deadliest years for plane crashes: 22 accidents resulted in 992 fatalities. This proves that flying is no longer safe. True (120 points)
False (1180 points)
Let's see how good you are at spotting fake news. TRUE OR FALSE: “I watched when the World Trade Center came tumbling down. And I watched in Jersey City, New Jersey, where thousands and thousands of people were cheering as that building was coming down." True (175 points)
False (1041 points)
What is the proprietary algorithm regulating Instagram users' experience? Edgerank (116 points)
Pagerank (165 points)
Timebased (150 points)
InstaRank (664 points)
Facebook allows to advertise your posts as: CPC (cost per click) (283 points)
CPM (cost per mille impression) (66 points)
Pageviews (268 points)
CPC and CPM (459 points)
What is the "reach" of an online advertising? The number of times the item is uploaded (33 points)
The number of times the item is viewed (263 points)
The number unique users viewing the item (390 points)